Ilyonectria liriodendri
(Halleen, Rego & Crous) P. Chaverri & C. Salgado  2011 

 Cylindrocarpon liriodendri J.D. MacDon. & E.E. Butler 1981 (anamorphe)

Black foot


Knowledge of the fungal species belonging to the Nectriaceae associated with black grapevine disease and / or the root system of this plant has increased in recent years. Depending on the country, different genera and species could be involved or isolated from the roots:
  • Ilyonectria liriodendri ;
  • Ilyonectria macrodidyma (Halleen, Schroers & Crous) P. Chaverri & C. Salgado (syn. Neonectria macrodidyma Halleen, Schroers & Crous);
  • Campylocarpon fasciculare Schroers & Crous (unknown teleomorph);
  • Campylocarpon pseudofasciculare Hallee, Schroers & Crous (unknown teleomorph);
more occasionally ( species Ilyonectria to be confirmed)
  • Ilyonectria estremocensis (Portugal);
  • Ilyonectria alcacerensis (Espagne) ;
  • Ilyonectria novozelandica (New Zealand, South Africa, and USA);
  • " Cylindrocarpum n " pauciseptata Schroers & Crous (Slovenia);
  • C. destructans ssp. thick , C. smelling ssp. thick and C. pauciseptata ont aussi été signalés en Uruguay.

Let us add that Cylindrocarpon radicicola Wollenw., Long associated with Blackfoot disease, would in fact be the anamorph of another species of Ilyonectria : Ilyonectria radicicola (Gerlach & L. Nilsson) Chaverri & C. Salgado, whose asexual form is now named Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinssm.) Scholten.

Black foot disease, also known as black foot disease, is a wasting disease that affects young vine plantations up to the age of 6 to 8 years. First reported in the 1960s, it was referred to at the time as "gangrene".

This soil-borne disease is very dependent on cultural conditions predisposing young plants to infections by the roots, in particular humidity and the asphyxiating conditions of certain soils. It manifests itself very irregularly in regions with a temperate climate or, more strangely, in hot climates in irrigated vines (Italy, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, California). In France, towards the end of the 1980s, it particularly affected the vineyards of the north-east of our territory, such as Champagne or Charentais. It has also identified in other wine regions: in Aquitaine, Burgundy and Alsace in particular.

Black foot, the development of which can be initiated in the nursery, causes variable damage depending on the agronomic context: from a few isolated diseased vines in little affected plots, to high frequencies of diseased plants in the most serious cases. Without epidemic character, this disease, which remains secondary, is however quite regularly observed in the vineyard.


* Classification * : Fungi, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreomycetidae, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae
Synonymie : Neonectria liriodendri Halleen, Rego & Crous
English name : black foot disease
Last change : 04/20/21